Big names from around the entertainment world trod the red carpet at The Fashion Awards 2019 on Monday, as Naomi Campbell was crowned fashion icon.
The event at London’s Royal Albert Hall was hosted by actress Tracee Ellis Ross – the daughter of Diana Ross.
Another pop legend, Janet Jackson, was on hand to give singer-come-Fenty brand designer Rihanna her first major fashion award – for Urban Luxe.
Jackson posted her congratulations online, alongside a picture of them both looking suitably chuffed.
Campbell, one of the original supermodels from the 90s, wore an Alexander McQueen dress in the so-called “nearly naked” trend and was presented with her icon award by Sir Jony Ive.
Designer of the year went to Englishman Daniel Lee for his work on the Bottega Veneta brand, while model of the year was won by South Sudanese-Australian star Adut Akech. She took the opportunity in her winners’ speech to call for greater diversity in the fashion industry.
“It is important for all of us to remember that someone like me winning this award is a rarity,” she said, according to The Independent.
“This is for the young women and men who found representation and validation in my work. I want them to never be afraid of dreaming big like I once did.”
Elsewhere on the night, Giorgio Armani was also recognised for his outstanding achievement in the fashion industry and he was given his award by actresses Cate Blanchett and Julia Roberts, who were both wearing his designs.
Check out some more pictures from the red carpet below, then try to replicate them at your Christmas party this year… if you’re feeling brave.
With more than $750m (£571m) from governments and organisations like the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, it is funding promising new vaccine technologies.
In particular, CEPI wants vaccines that can be produced quickly. “In most circumstances that we have an epidemic, speed becomes really, really important,” Mr Hatchett says.
Traditionally, vaccines are made by taking the original virus or bacteria and disabling it in some way.
The idea is to degrade the microbe so that it is no longer a health threat, but can still trigger a response from immune system. The body can then use that immune response if it ever comes into contact with the real infection.
That kind of approach has been terrifically successful, saving millions of lives. The trouble is that developing and manufacturing vaccines that way is slow and expensive.
Frederic Garzoni is one of many scientists hoping to change all that.
He spent years in France working on proteins, examining and tweaking the building blocks of bodies.
But in 2016 he came across something he thinks is very special. A protein structure that self-assembles into a football-like molecule, that can be easily manipulated and be produced in large quantities, and can perhaps be used to vaccinate against a host of diseases.
“I thought that is the best protein I have seen in 15 years. I’m quitting my job and I’m going to focus on this,” he said.
Mr Garzoni, and others, are manipulating all sorts of microbes, often at the level of DNA, to make particles that spur the immune system into action.
His research has been helped by powerful tools, including cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a procedure that lowers samples to extremely low temperatures and then bombards then with electrons.
The resulting pictures render almost atomic detail, allowing scientists to identify useful properties, that would have been unknown before cryo-EM came along.
At the University of Bristol, those images have been combined with powerful cloud-computing services provided by US tech giant Oracle, which allow detailed pictures to be created more quickly and cheaply than ever before.
With that kind of detail, researchers can identify all sorts of useful properties.
There are dozens of different research groups developing new technologies to create vaccines in different ways.
Jon Cuccui is an associate professor of microbiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
His research has focused on vaccines to tackle bacterial infections. The approach has been to use a safe strain of the escherichia ecoli bacterium as a molecular factory to produce a sugar-protein complex, that can train the host to recognise many dangerous infections.
“You end up with an infinite quantity of vaccine, that is scaleable… and therefore much cheaper to produce,” he said.
Several vaccines produced using this technology are already in clinical trials.
Mr Cuccui says the ability to quickly determine the genetic blueprint of an organism and then tweak that blueprint has made a big difference to his research.
“We can go and target an organism and develop a prototype vaccine at a much faster rate than we could 10 to 20 years ago.”
In_pictures The long road to vaccine approval
Once scientists have developed a promising vaccine, they conduct pre-clinical trials on mice and larger animals. That stage alone can take years of research. But if the treatment is promising then it will be tested on humans.
Phase I clinical trials. Small-scale trials (up to 100 people) to assess whether the vaccine is safe in humans and what the best dose should be.
Phase II clinical trials are larger (several hundred) and look mainly to assess the effectiveness of the vaccine against artificial infection and clinical disease. Vaccine safety, side-effects and the immune response are also studied.
Phase III clinical trials are studied on a large scale (up to thousands of subjects across several sites) to see how the vaccine performs under natural disease conditions. If the vaccine retains safety and efficacy over a defined period, the manufacturer is able to apply to the regulatory authorities for a licence to market the product for human use.
Phase IV happens after the vaccine has been licensed and introduced into use. Also called post-marketing surveillance, this stage aims to detect rare adverse effects as well as to assess long-term efficacy.
Being able to develop and manufacture vaccines more cheaply is the goal of Mr Hatchett’s organisation, CEPI.
“We don’t want to just develop high-price vaccines that can only be afforded by the one percenters in the developed world… the epidemic diseases we are focused on are much more likely to emerge in lower and middle-income countries,” he says.
Giant pharmaceutical companies are some of the most important operators in the vaccine business.
GSK is one of the biggest players in the field, making vaccines that protect against 21 diseases.
“This is a new golden age of vaccines as far as I’m concerned,” says William “Rip” Ballou, head of US vaccine research at pharmaceuticals giant GSK.
He is particularly excited about a technology, called self-amplifying mRNA (SAM), which starts with part of the genetic code of a virus, converting that into messenger RNA (molecules which carry instructions for the body about how to build proteins).
Once injected into the body, the molecule can use the body’s own systems to trigger an immune response to the original virus.
Potentially it allows GSK to find candidate vaccines more quickly, which could be vital when responding to an outbreak.
It could also revolutionise the way vaccines are manufactured. At the moment each vaccine has its own dedicated production line, but SAM could see the same equipment used to make different vaccines – which would be much cheaper and faster.
“This is really mind blowing technology,” says Mr Ballou.
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It said water levels were still very high on stretches of the River Don and expected flooding in that area until midweek.
A military helicopter would be used on Sunday evening to drop sandbags at Bentley Ings by the river.
On Sunday, Prime Minister Boris Johnson, who visited flood-hit Derbyshire on Friday, said he was “in awe of the community’s spirit and resilience in the face of this awful ongoing event”.
He said he was receiving regular briefings on the situation and added the government’s emergency Bellwin scheme had been activated to reimburse eligible councils for certain costs they incur.
Doncaster Council reiterated its call to evacuate Fishlake and has set up a rest centre in nearby Stainforth “for as long as is needed”.
According to the Salvation Army, some people had been rescued from their homes by boat since the early hours of Saturday morning but others remained in their properties.
Damian Allen, chief executive of Doncaster Council, said: “We are concerned over reports that some residents remain in the Fishlake area.
“South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue crews are on hand to evacuate any Fishlake residents who may be stuck in their homes, and we would urge everybody to take advantage of this.
“The council are unable to offer on-the-ground support to residents who are in severe flood warning areas, based on advice from the Environment Agency.”
The authority said it expected it would be “at least 48 hours until you can return to your homes, if not longer” and was told by the Environment Agency that flood waters in the village would “not start to go down for at least the next 24 hours”.
Helen Batt, from the agency, said 4,000 properties had been protected by flood defences in the village, but added 300 had been flooded, with more than 1,200 evacuated.
BBC reporter Richard Cadey said some roads around Fishlake had been closed and the village was “effectively cut off because of flooding”.
Many parts of the area remain under 3ft (1m) of water and only tractors are able to get in by some roads.
He said people on the ground had told him 90% of the homes there had been flooded.
Pam Webb, who owns a spa in Fishlake, said: “We’ve got blue skies, it looks picturesque until you actually get in to the village and you see the devastation that’s been caused to homes and businesses.
“Devastating is an easy word to use but it’s completely devastating and it’s heartbreaking.”
In_pictures At the scene
By Richard Cadey, BBC Radio Sheffield reporter
Trying to get to Fishlake seemed like an impossible task. The village has suffered severe flooding and I was constantly met by road and bridge closures.
In nearby Stainforth people had collected food in the local pub and taken it to those stranded in Fishlake by tractor. But now even this has become impractical.
Richard Pashley’s family farm in neighbouring South Bramwith dates to 1910.
The 63-year-old told me he had never seen flooding as bad as this in his lifetime. He put it down to a number of different factors, including torrential rainfall and the lack of dredging on the River Don.
This was a recurring concern from a number of residents and they all echoed Mr Pashley’s call for dredging to begin again on this section of the river.
The fields surrounding these villages were like lakes and Mr Pashley’s field of potatoes was submerged by up to five feet of water, just two weeks before he was due to harvest them.
Some train routes between Doncaster and Sheffield were closed and Northern Rail has warned commuters they are likely to remain shut until further notice.
In Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, 12 properties remained evacuated after a landslide at an old quarry site saw debris and soil fall onto Band End Close.
Bassetlaw District Council said it was being removed and “temporary safety measures” had been put in place.
Natalie and Jonathan Palmer were evacuated from their home in Mansfield, along with their children, and are staying in a hotel.
They said they had been told they would not be able to return to their property for at least a fortnight, adding they were “disgusted and angry” at the prospect.
In Newark, people living in mobile homes were evacuated on Saturday evening as river levels peaked in the town.
“Major incidents” were declared on Friday in Worksop after the River Ryton burst its banks and in South Yorkshire as a result of wide-spread flooding.
Parts of Worksop were without power on Saturday.
Firefighters evacuated 25 homes, and a community information point has been set up for those affected by the floods.
In Derby city centre, officials considered a city-wide evacuation as authorities saw the River Derwent swell to record levels of 3.35m (11ft).
Communities around Matlock, Derbyshire, where flood victim Annie Hall was swept away, are cleaning up after the flooding.
Rowsley Church of England Primary School is trying to raise £5,000 after its classrooms were heavily damaged.
Governor Marianne Quick said: “The school will remain closed until it has been expertly assessed but the likelihood of our children getting back into their much loved classrooms anytime soon is unlikely.”
Resident Sarah Sutcliffe said: “Parents, teachers and especially the children are all distraught about the damage which has been caused.”
One of the most severely hit areas has been Bentley in Doncaster, where flooding affected many homes 12 years ago.
One resident told BBC Radio Sheffield: “The worry is our insurance policies are expensive as it is because of the 2007 floods, so now we’re all worried whether we’re going to get reinsured.”
Some residents were “angry and frustrated” at Doncaster Council – claiming it had not provided sandbags early enough to prevent properties from flooding, the station reported.
Homes in Stainforth, Thorpe in Balne and Trumfleet have also been evacuated.
South Yorkshire Police said it had extra officers out on patrol to “protect the evacuated areas and support those affected by the floods”.
“There is no suggestion of any criminality resulting from the floods but we hope our extra patrols can offer at least a little reassurance to those worst affected.”
Sydney’s first new major zoo in more than 100 years will open on Saturday. With such debate about animal welfare these days, can zoos still be a force for good? Gary Nunn reports from Sydney.
Zoos have evolved significantly since they were first created.
Their original purpose was braggadocio: a way for the wealthy to display their power in private collections. Later, they helped with science research. Then they became tourist attractions the public would pay to view. It wasn’t until the 1970s onwards that conservation emerged as a priority.
Some animal welfare academics argue that zoo enclosures have vastly improved in the past 50 years – but dissenters remain impassioned and vocal.
One academic told the BBC: “We don’t need more zoos.”
Sydney Zoo, about 40km (25 miles) west of the centre, is marketing itself on attractions such as Australia’s largest reptile and nocturnal house.
Among the animals on show will be African lions, Sumatran tigers, cheetahs and chimps as well as native Australian wildlife.
“My father had the original idea in the ’80s whilst managing Sydney Aquarium,” says Jake Burgess, the managing director of the new zoo. “Together we refreshed it after finding the perfect plot of land in western Sydney.”
Its main rival is Taronga Zoo, a hugely popular tourist attraction which opened in 1916 near the city centre. With temperatures hotter away from the coast, the Sydney Zoo has invested in climate control technology both to encourage guests to visit and to keep animals cool.
“Many exhibits feature air conditioned back-of-house spaces which allow animals to rest comfortably, as well as misting stations and shade structures,” Mr Burgess says.
Ben Pearson, from World Animal Protection, says he has an additional concern: “What happens if this private zoo goes bankrupt? Zoos Victoria [in Melbourne] and Sydney’s Taronga Zoo are publicly funded so they’re able to to maintain high welfare standards.
“If Sydney Zoo goes bust, the elephant they shipped all the way from Dublin will likely have to be shipped back, adding to its distress.”
Animal rights group Peta has said the new zoo is “nothing to celebrate” and that “Australians passionate about wild animals” should donate to organisations supporting animals in the wild instead.
Technology Where zoos are doing good
Sydney University’s David Phalen is considered a pragmatist on zoos. The veterinary science professor concedes that zoos will never replicate wild habitats, and has released studies showing captive cheetahs are more likely to develop arthritis.
But he adds: “When more countries are becoming increasingly urbanised, zoos make people more aware of the wider environment. They may watch David Attenborough, but that’s no comparison to actually seeing a tiger up close.”
The impact of this experience can encourage an enthusiasm for animal welfare and other things, such as boycotting products containing palm oil which destroy the habitats of animals like orangutans.
Many zoos put some profits into conservation. The World Association of Zoos and Aquariums encourages members to spend 10% of operational expenditure on conservation projects. Sydney Zoo is in the process of receiving accreditation.
Sydney’s 103-year-old Taronga Zoo is widely considered a leader in everything positive a zoo can be – promoting conservation, education, and animal welfare.
Nick Boyle leads a team of 66 people at the zoo who focus on animal welfare and conservation.
He names seven species that he says would be extinct without Taronga’s intervention: the Bellinger River turtle, the Lister’s gecko, the Christmas Island blue-tailed skink, the Northern Corroboree frog, the Southern Corroboree frog, the yellow-spotted bell frog, the Booroolong frog.
Mr Boyle lists several other actions by the zoo, including: “We rehabilitate about 50 marine turtles a year. Often they’re admitted for marine entanglement or ingestion of plastic – so we can show our visitors this to encourage them to make better choices around recycling and littering.”
Technology What the priorities should be
So if a zoo is going to open, what can it learn from best practice?
Prof Phalen says Portland Zoo is one place leading innovation. “Their big cat enclosure has set up a contraption that throws mince balls in the air,” he says. When the big cats hear a click, they go into hunt mode. It keeps them engaged and reduces distressing boredom.”
Other zoos now use robots to clean enclosures so animals aren’t regularly transferred to small holding cages.
For zoo opponents like Prof Bekoff, stopping captive breeding and shipping animals around the world as “breeding machines” are among the bare minimums.
“Give the animals as much choice and control over their environment as possible, particularly with things like social groupings,” he says.
Taronga – which employs a behavioural expert to monitor animals and ensure their welfare – does have a breeding programme, but argues Australia’s location makes alternatives difficult.
“Australia is isolated from Europe and the US and has very strict bio-security parameters so it’s not impossible to participate in global breeding programmes, but it needs to be done right,” Mr Boyle says.
Australia’s newest zoo insists it’s taking this all on board.
“Our habitats have been designed with animal welfare as a priority,” says managing director Jake Burgess.
“We’ve used moats to create a sense of openness and space which improves animal welfare and guest experience.”
Sydney Zoo’s opening weekend had sold out well ahead of time, suggesting there’s no shortage of public interest in visiting such facilities.
But asked whether zoos are a good way of connecting people in cities to the welfare of wildlife in the bush, Prof Bekoff says there’s “little evidence they educate in a meaningful way”.
“People can get a good enough education watching wildlife TV shows. The lesson zoos teach? It’s OK keeping animals in cages.”
Trainee solicitor Taler Kelly said: “Only Michael Bublé singing ‘It’s beginning to look a lot like Christmas’ in my ears can save me a little from feeling sad.”
Describing her commute to work from Stoneleigh to Waterloo on an overcrowded train she said: “Patience is low. To have to deal with a train not running at all between 06:10 and 07:40 due to cancellations, in addition to only half a service, is impossible. People need to get in to work.”
Jess Cowper, who travels from Wimbledon to Vauxhall every day, told BBC News: “We’re very much sardines in a can when these strikes happen.
“We pay a lot for our season tickets so at the very least I feel we should have space to breathe.
“These strikes don’t seem to solve anything and only serve to frustrate their customers who are just trying to use the service they have paid for.”
Adding to the issues on Tuesday, a signal failure between Fulwell and Shepperton means services running to and from these stations may be cancelled, delayed or changed at short notice, with disruption expected until 12:00 GMT.
RMT general secretary Mick Cash said: “Our members are solidly supporting the second day of this phase of strike action.
“It is frankly ludicrous for the company to simply jam their heads in the sand rather than getting back round the table to get the same deal back on track that they pulled away from at the last minute in earlier negotiations.
“A deal is there to be done which would cost the company nothing and which would give the safety and accessibility guarantees at the platform/train interface that we have been seeking.
“SWR need to get out of the bunker and get back into talks.”
The train company said it has given the union guarantees about having guards on its trains.
SWR released a revised timetable and said it would provide longer trains to increase capacity where possible.
The operator runs services between London Waterloo and Portsmouth, Southampton, Bournemouth and Weymouth as well as Reading, Exeter and Bristol. It also operates suburban commuter lines in south-west London, Surrey, Berkshire, and north-east Hampshire.
Strike days are as follows:
From 00:01 GMT on Monday 2 December until 23:59 on Wednesday 11 December
From 00:01 on Friday 13 December until 23:59 on Tuesday 24 December
From 00:01 on Friday 27 December 2019 until 23:59 on 1 January
Labour has the strongest policies to protect nature and combat climate change, a Friends of the Earth (FoE) survey suggests.
Its election pledges narrowly beat the Green Party and the Liberal Democrats – with the Conservatives far behind.
One key climate policy area is aviation, and Labour has now announced plans for a levy on people who take frequent flights.
The FoE league table marks the parties on 45 policy points.
Its scores are:
Labour – 33
Greens – 31
Lib Dems – 30
Conservatives – 5.5
FoE spokesman Dave Timms said: “Environmental issues have been given greater priority in this election than ever before – and with the world in the midst of an ecological and climate crisis this must be the next government’s top priority.
“Many of the policies that Labour, the Liberal Democrats and Green Party have put forward are commensurate with, or striving to meet, the challenges we face.
“It is disappointing we have not seen the same urgency, ambition or consistency from the Conservative Party.”
The result will be a shock to the Green Party, whose overriding concern is protecting the planet and who typically top the environment policy charts by a wide margin.
The Greens complained the scoring should only have included commitments made in manifestos.
But in a bid for the youth vote, Labour has challenged the Greens by devoting the top section of its manifesto to tackling the environment crisis.
One high-scoring policy in the FoE survey is on aviation. Labour has been under pressure from trades unions to safeguard jobs in the industry.
But after correspondence with Friends of the Earth, the party strengthened its position by backing a frequent flyer levy on the 15% of people who take 70% of flights.
A letter to the group from four Labour shadow cabinet ministers also promised to review its Aviation National Policy Statement against much tougher carbon targets.
What about Heathrow?
Labour said expansion at Heathrow would be cancelled if it was not consistent with climate targets.
A Labour government would also divert funds from the roads programme for public transport, the party says.
The Greens did not provide any more clarification or policies to strengthen their manifesto.
Mr Timms said: “Labour’s manifesto contains strong, funded policies on home energy efficiency and renewables. This was boosted by significant additional pledges during the campaign on plans for tree planting, food policy, public transport and cycling.
“The Lib Dems and Greens both scored well, and had policies roughly commensurate with the scale of the crisis.”
He added: “The Conservatives have some good policies – especially on agriculture – but in sector after sector its commitments were invariably weaker than the other parties’, entirely absent or just plain bad.”
The Conservatives are committed to a £28.8bn road-building programme that experts say is not compatible with carbon targets because, even if the cars of the future are electric, gathering the resources to make the cars will still generate emissions.
The Tories said their climate targets were world-leading but road congestion had to be tackled.
Commuters are facing major delays after a train derailed in Leeds.
Services between Leeds, Lincoln and Kings Cross are affected after an empty passenger service struck a stationary train at the Neville Hill depot.
Train operator London North Eastern Railway (LNER) said an investigation was under way after the “very low-speed” collision on Wednesday night.
No-one was injured but disruption is expected on the network until about 18:30 GMT.
In a statement, LNER said: “We apologise to any customers who may have their journeys disrupted.”
Network Rail said the disruption was because access was restricted to the depot which is used by a number of train operators.
A spokesperson said: “We are working with train operators to run the best possible service and passengers can check their specific journey on National Rail Enquiries or with their train operator before travelling.”
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Sir Richard Branson has apologised for a photo he used to mark the launch his new Branson Centre of Entrepreneurship in South Africa.
The entrepreneur tweeted a photo which was criticised for failing to reflect the diversity of South Africa.
One of the critics is South African fashion designer Thula Sindi, who says: “Where did you find so many white people in South Africa?”
Sir Richard tweeted an apology, saying it “clearly lacked diversity”.
A Virgin Group spokesperson added the image in Sir Richard’s tweet did not reflect “the diverse make-up of attendees” at the launch event.
In the intial tweet, Sir Richard said: “Wonderful to be in South Africa to help launch the new Branson Centre of Entrepreneurship. We aim to become the heart of entrepreneurship for Southern Africa.”
It sparked a series of responses, including from Mr Sindi – whose designs were worn by South Africa’s minister of communications and telecommunications, Stella Ndabeni-Abraham on the day she was sworn in.
He remarks that it must have “Really taken an honest effort for exclude the majority of the population which is just as skilled and talented”.
Sir Richard later tweeted: “Apologies. I hope you will take a look at my blog which does far better justice to the amazing work of the Centre and its team.”
In the link to his blog, Sir Richard writes: “We will play a more meaningful role in entrepreneurs’ lives than your average accelerator, supporting companies to not just survive, but thrive, and make business a real force for good in society, for the environment and the economy.”
One individual had told critics they were wrong. “This is one of many pictures, most of which are diverse,” he tweeted.
South Africa’s population of almost 58 million is 80% black African, and Sir Richard writes in his blog that the “economy is dependent on entrepreneurial activity for creating future economic growth and jobs”.
“But the economic contribution to South Africa’s entrepreneurial sector is below the developing country norm. I believe that increasing entrepreneurship in this country is the golden highway to economic democracy,” he adds.
Sir Richard’s Virgin Group has a wide range of interests from gyms to planes and the entrepreneur’s space company, Virgin Galactic, listed on the New York Stock Exchange last month.
A spokesperson for Virgin said: “The tweet linked to a blog about the launch of the Branson Centre of Entrepreneurship South Africa, which assists aspiring entrepreneurs of all backgrounds with the skills, opportunities and inspiration they need to succeed.
“We apologise for the poorly chosen image, but would like to emphasise that this does not reflect the diverse make-up of attendees.
“As the video, other social posts and other images of the event show, many of the diverse group of Branson Centre entrepreneurs, trustees and team were present and the image attached to that particular tweet should have reflected this too.”
It includes family portraits, working life, street scenes, sporting pursuits, shops, trams, tenements, mountains and monuments.
Another exhibition at the National Library of Scotland – called ‘At the Water’s Edge’ – looks at photographs from the collection which show Scotland’s coasts and waterways.
The display was put together by photography enthusiast Murray MacKinnon, who established a successful chain of film-processing stores in the 1980s, starting from his pharmacy in Dyce, near Aberdeen.
He published a book of highlights from his collection in 2013, shortly before he sold it on to a private buyer.
It includes many of the pioneers of photography such as William Henry Fox Talbot, David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson as well as Julia Margaret Cameron, Thomas Annan, Roger Fenton and George Washington Wilson.